Understanding Eye Diseases and Disorders: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, and Prevention

Understanding common eye diseases and disorders is important to your eye health. Additionally, preventative measures and early detection are key. Let’s look at how early detection can help prevent severe disorders and diseases.

Common Eye Diseases and Disorders

Symptoms of eye disease include blurry vision


  • Cataracts
  • Glaucoma
  • Macular degeneration
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Dry eye syndrome
  • Conjunctivitis

Cataracts are clouding of the eye lens.

  • Symptoms: blurry vision, sensitivity to light, difficulty seeing at night
  • Causes: aging, injury, certain medications
  • Treatments: surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial one
  • Prevention: shield your eyes from sunlight, quit smoking, maintain a healthy lifestyle


Glaucoma causes optic nerve damage because of increased pressure in the eye.

  • Symptoms: gradual loss of peripheral vision, eye pain, blurred vision
  • Causes: increased pressure in the eye, abnormal blood vessels
  • Treatments: eye drops, medication for eye pressure, laser therapy, surgery
  • Prevention: regular eye check-ups, maintain a healthy lifestyle, avoid alcohol

Macular Degeneration

Affects the macula, which is the part of the eye responsible for high-resolution vision.

  • Symptoms: blurred or distorted vision, loss of central vision, difficulty recognizing colors and faces
  • Causes: aging, genetics, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking
  • Treatments: anti-VEGF treatments, laser therapy, vitamins
  • Prevention: healthy diet, quit smoking, regular exercise

Diabetic Retinopathy

Results from blood vessel damage in the retina of people with diabetes.

  • Symptoms: blurry vision, washed out colors, floaters, difficulty seeing at night, vision loss
  • Causes: diabetes, uncontrolled blood sugar levels
  • Treatments: laser surgery, anti-VEGF treatments, in-eye injections
  • Prevention:properly managed diabetes, regular eye check-ups
Symptoms of eye disease include headaches

Dry Eye Syndrome

Occurs when your eyes can’t produce enough tears.

  • Symptoms: itchy, stinging, red, and burning eyes; sensitivity to light; overactive tear production
  • Causes: aging, certain diseases, computer screens, environmental factors, medications
  • Treatments: artificial tears, warm eye compresses, prescription eye drops, punctal plugs
  • Prevention:avoid environmental triggers, stay hydrated


This is inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear tissue covering the white of the eye. It is commonly called pink eye. This can happen because of infections or allergies. If from allergies, it is called allergic conjunctivitis.

  • Symptoms: red or pink discoloration, eye itching, mucus discharge, pain, puffy eyes
  • Causes: bacterial or viral infection, allergies, sharing eye makeup
  • Treatments: antibiotics, cool damp washcloth, antihistamines
  • Prevention: good hand hygiene, avoid contact and makeup sharing with infected individuals

The Role of Regular Eye Check-ups for Disease Prevention

Regular eye check-ups are extremely important for early disease detection. Eye doctors can identify potential issues before symptoms start.


Lifestyle Changes for Eye Health

  • A diet rich in essential nutrients supports good eye health. Eat plenty of leafy greens, fish, fruit, and nuts.
  • Regular physical activity promotes good blood vessel circulation.
  • Follow the 20-20-20 rule to reduce eye strain when using your phone, computer, or tablet. Take a 20-second break, every 20 minutes, and focus on something 20 feet away.

Understanding eye diseases and disorders and having regular check-ups can help you maintain excellent eye health. Schedule your comprehensive eye exam with The Eye Center, with locations in Huntsville and Madison, at (256) 705-3937.